Many factors can increase the risk of developing melanoma and other skin cancers. Some of these factors are due to behaviors, like exposure to the sun. However, some risk factors for skin cancers are inherited in families.
Researchers have identified several genetic risk factors for melanoma. Mutations (or changes) in these genes can cause increased risk for melanoma. The best understood gene associated with melanoma risk is called CDKN2A (also sometimes known as p16). Mutations in another gene, MC1R, result in red hair and fair skin, and are also associated with risk for melanoma. More recently, mutations in the MITF gene and the TERT gene have been identified in families with multiple cases of melanoma. Researchers are still learning about how to use genetic testing to help take care of families with genetic risk.
If you or a family member has had melanoma, it may be worth talking with your doctor about the rest of your family history. Some clues to inherited risk include:
- Individuals with more than one melanoma
- Other cancers in family members including:
o Pancreatic cancer
o Head and neck cancer
o Breast cancer
o Ovarian cancer
o Kidney cancer
- Cancers diagnosed at earlier ages than typically expected
People who have a family history of multiple relatives with cancers could benefit from meeting with a genetic counselor to talk about possible genetic testing, personal cancer risk, and cancer screening options.
For people who have an increased risk of melanoma, there are important steps that can help to reduce the chance of developing melanoma.
Limit sun exposure
- Find shade when possible
- Avoid exposure between 10 am and 4 pm when UV light is strongest
- Wear protective clothing
- Use sunscreen with SPF 15 or higher daily
Check your skin
- Learn how to do a skin self exam and check your skin once a month
- Have regular skin exams by a doctor
- Talk to your doctor if a mole or spot on the skin is changing in size, shape or color, or if it is persistently itching, bleeding, or growing
Still have questions? The nurses at Cancer AnswerLine™ have answers.
The University of Michigan Cancer Genetics Clinic provides counseling for people with a personal or family history of cancers that may have genetic links. If a link is confirmed, our specialized physician and genetic counselors will develop a plan for additional screening or lifestyle changes to help reduce cancer risk.
The University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center’s 1,000 doctors, nurses, care givers and researchers are united by one thought: to deliver the highest quality, compassionate care while working to conquer cancer through innovation and collaboration. The center is among the top-ranked national cancer programs, and #1 in Michigan for cancer patient care. Seventeen multidisciplinary clinics offer one-stop access to teams of specialists for personalized treatment plans, part of the ideal patient care experience. Patients also benefit through access to promising new cancer therapies.